Tension tests are conducted by placing the neck in a device designed to apply pure vertical (tensile) loads at a specified location. The ATDs were tested at four different anatomical locations: center of gravity (CG), occipital condyles (OC), 3 cm anterior of the CG, and 3 cm posterior of the OC. After preconditioning, the ATD was tested in a battery that included multiple end conditions, including fixed-fixed, fixed-free, translational-constrained, and rotational-constrained and a viscoelastic battery was performed. These tests are performed using the MTS servo-hydraulic control system under both load and displacement control.


Bending tests are conducted by placing the ATD neck in a test apparatus designed to apply pure bending moments, in both flexion and extension. The moments are generated using a pair of pneumatic pistons to apply a force-couple. A counterweight was used to simulate 0.5 N tension to allow the ATD to establish an initial position. After preconditioning, the ATD was loaded with pure moments at 0.5 N-m increments.

Both Hybrid III and THOR tests have been performed in both tension and bending test conditions.