Female Bending

Flexion/Extension Bending - Female (updated April, 2005)

Female Bending Corridors [HTML] [Microsoft Excel]

Please see the following publications for background and methodology:

Nightingale, R. W., Winkelstein, B. A., Knaub, K. E., and Myers, B. S. (2002) Comparative Bending Strengths and Structural Properties of the Upper and Lower Cervical Spine. Journal of Biomechanics, 35:(2002), pp. 725-732.